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        來源:暨優教育-專升本一站式教育咨詢機構-成都暨優教育有限公司  日期:2022-03-16 11:31:03



        UNIT 1-1

        UNIT 1
        一、 word study
        We have to accept the objective reality as it is.
        The literary critics should be as objective as possible in analysis and judgement.
        People work hard to carry out the economic objectives of the Ninth Five-Year Plan.
        My objective for the present is to pass the oral exam.
        The singer was accompanied on the piano by his pupil.
        The lonely old man is accompanied by his dog.
        All orders must be accompanied with cash.
        She is always ready to argue over the smallest issues.
        He often argues philosophy with James.
        He argued for immediate action.
        They argued against such a policy.
        argue into(out of)doing sth..   說服某人做(不做)某事。
        I argued him out of going on such a dangerous journey.
        He argued that man was descended from apes.
        Work is defined as the product of a force and the distance through which its point of application moves in the direction of the force.
        He has defined his position on the issues.

        UNIT 1-2

        二、 ??季湫?br/>1、決策是在現有的可選做法中所做的選擇。P1
        A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available.
        Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance.
        If there is no choice, there is no decision to be made.
        For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like.
        For example, managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion.
        Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best—that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals.
        In the larger scheme of things, however, increased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization.
        Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary form person to person and from department to department .
        三、 習題
        goal, objective, accomplish, predict, accompany, implement, tendency, achievement, argue, budget, define, entity,
        in the way, in part, point of view, contribute to, to apply for, in hand, to turn down
        4.Text A 漢譯英
        Decision makers should be able to make a best guess at what the future will be.
        Some people believe almost everything a manager does involves decision.
        If there is no proper choice, there is no proper decision.
        Different people have different ideas about the same problem; their solutions to the problem are, therefore, also different.
        Decision makers often play the key role in the development of the business of a company.
        Decision makers are usually key people who determine the company's business development.

        UNIT 1-3

        1. Almost everything a manager does _______ (involve) decisions, indeed, some suggest that the management process is decision making . (99.4)。
        答案是involves . 考點: involve 為謂語動詞,應該用一般現在時。
        2.If there is no choice, there is no decision _______(make). (99.4)
        答案是to be made ??键c:to be made 是動詞不定式作定語修飾decision.
        3. If you are now_____your thirties, you can expect to live nearly one third of the rest of your life after the age of 60. (99.4)
        A. in B. at C. between D. among
        答案是 A.
        4. Almost everything a manager does_____decisions; indeed, some suggest that the management process is decision making. (00.4)
        A. imposes B. improvise C. involves D. indicates
        答案為C .
        5. When______(present) with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems and production managers see production problems.
        答案為presented . 考點: present 是過去分詞作狀語。
        6. An organization is a group of people, and a decision_____(make) today may have consequences far into the future.
        答案是made . 考點:make 是過去分詞作定語, 修飾decision .
        7. 漢譯英:通常管理者必須對未來的情況作出最佳的預測。
        答案:Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be.
        1. 決策的目的是為了實現組織的目標。
        答:The purpose of making a decision is to achieve organizational goals.
        2. 決策過程對經營管理至關重要。
        答: The decision-making process is fundamental to business management.
        3. 經理所做的任何事情幾乎都與決策有關。
        答:Almost everything a manager does involves decision-making.
        4. 雖然我們不能預見未來,但應當盡量減少偶然性發生。
        答: Although we cannot predict the future, we must try t leave as little as possible to chance.
        5. 不同的管理者對同一問題的解釋不同。
        答: Different manager define the same problem in different terms.

        UNIT 2-1

        一、word study
        ① exert
        He has exerted all his strength to attain his goal.
        He has been exerting a lot of pressure on me to change my mind.
        These principles exerted great influence upon the course of the revolution.
        ② collapse
        The storm caused the collapse of the wooden shelter.
        He suffered from a nervous collapse.
        The collapse of the government left the country in confusion.
        The roof collapsed under the weight of the snow.
        The negotiations collapsed after several meetings.
        In the last weeks of the war she collapsed from long imprisonment.
        ③ lauch
        vt 1、發射,投射;2、使(船)下水
        The satellite was launched in a rocket.
        The hunter launched a spear at the wolf.
        A new ship has been successfully launched.
        vt ./vi.發動,發起(運動等)
        launch out into 開始,著手進行
        Our army launched an attack on the enemy.
        The police launched an investigation into the case.
        The research group launched out into a series of new experiment.

        UNIT 2-2

        ④ operate
        vi. 1、運轉,起作用;2、動手術(on,upon)
        The elevator operates smoothly.
        The medicine gradually operated.
        The doctor operated on the neck of the patient.
        This airline operates five main lines and dozens of branch lines.
        Do you know how to operate the machine?
        The doctor operated the patient on the neck.
        He was operated on for lung cancer.
        Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space into which matter has fallen and from which nothing can escape.
        The theory is that some stars explode when their density increases to a particular point.
        Some people think that the Start of Bethlehem could have been a supernova.
        If a man fell into a black hole, he would think that he reached the center of it very quickly.
        It is only recently that astronomers have begun specific research into black holes.
        On the other hand, scientists have suggested that every advanced technology could one day make use of the energy of black holes for mankind.
        Unit 2 練習:
        escape, explode, collapse, shrink, gravity, measurement, basis, launch, convincing, companion,
        speculation, swallow, operate, to make use of, a great many, above all
        1) ~6) 與??季湫拖嗤?。
        7) There might be a massive black hole at the center of our galaxy swallowing up stars at a very rapid rate.
        8) They show us a world which operates in a totally different way from our own and they question our most basic experience of space and time.

        UNIT 2-3

        3 句子漢譯英
        Astronomers have not yet fully solved the problem of what a black hole is.
        It is said that black holes are able to swallow up all the objects around them, such as stars .
        The research of black holes is just beginning and speculation about them are endless.
        Scientists still can not tell what happens inside a black hole.
        It is still impossible for scientists to tell what happens inside a black hole.
        If we understood black holes, they would not be so fearful .
        Black holes will not be so fearful if we get to know them.
        Ⅰ.Word Spelling
        1.密度 n. density _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        2.(使)倒塌,(使)崩潰 v. collapse _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        3.邊界線,邊界 n. boundary _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        4.永恒的,經久不變的 a.c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        5.基礎,根據 n.b _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        6.發射,發動 v.l _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        7.雙胞胎之一 a.t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        8.同伴,同事 n.c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        9.人類 n.m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        10.推測,猜測 n.s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        11.吞 v.s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        12.不充分的 a.i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        13.物質 n.m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        14.情況,環境 a.c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        15.發生,出現 v.o _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        16.強烈的 a.i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        17.證據 n.e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        18.看不見的 a.i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        19.宇航員 n.a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        20.熱帶的 a.t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
        Ⅱ.Word Form
        1.Supernovae____(report) by astronomers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
        2.Imagine the earth reduced to the size of a marble, but still____(have) the same mass, and you have some idea of the force of a black hole.
        3.If one____(make) a journey over the Continents one would find every kind of surface including mountain ranges, plains, and empty areas covered permanently by ice and snow.
        4.And astronomers are planning a new observatory to study the individual exploding stars____(believe) to be black holes.
        5.Matter from the one which we can see____(pull) towards the companion star.

        UNIT 2-4

        6.There might be a massive black hole at the centre of our galaxy____(swallow) up stars at a very rapid rate.
        7.The most____(convince) evidence of black holes comes from research into binary star systems.
        8.They show us a world which operates in a ____(total) different way from our own.
        9.The surface of some areas____(consist) largely of high mountains and deep valleys.
        10.Our world is the home of a very great many different people-peoples with different____(colour) skins.
        Ⅲ.Vocabulary and Structure
        1.Astronomers and scientists think that a black hole is a region of space (not a thing)____which matter has fallen and____which nothing can escape-not even light.
        [A] into into
        [B] into from
        [C] from into
        [D] from from
        2.This process of shrinking may be so intense____a black hole results.
        [A] whether
        [B] what
        [C] which
        [D] that
        3.Binary stars,____their name suggests, are twin stars whose position in space affects each other.
        [A] as
        [B] that
        [C] what
        [D] if
        4.In some binary systems, astronomers have shown that there is an invisible companion star, a 'partner' to____which we can see in the sky.
        [A] the one
        [B] that
        [C] the ones
        [D] those
        5.On the other hand, scientists have suggested that very advanced technology could one day____the energy of black holes for mankind.
        [A] make fun of
        [B] make sure of
        [C] make use of
        [D] make sense of
        6.Astronomers have evidence of a few other stars too, which might have black holes as____.
        [A] companies
        [B] comparisons
        [C] compounds
        [D] companions
        7.The earth is one of nine planets which move in____round the sun.
        [A] track
        [B] orbit
        [C] tour
        [D] route

        UNIT 2-5

        8.In August 1977, a satellite was____to gather data about the black holes in the Milky way.
        [A] posted
        [B] delivered
        [C] launched
        [D] transmitted
        9.The terms we would normally use to describe a scientific phenomenon are____here.
        [A] inadequate
        [B] invisible
        [C] intense
        [D] individual
        10.We know nothing about events which happen once objects pass this boundary, But____,matter must behave very differently inside the hole.
        [A] in addition
        [B] in person
        [C] in detail
        [D] in theory
        Ⅳ.C-E Translation
        單元自測答案 Unit 2
        Ⅰ.Word Spelling
        1.density 2.collapse 3.boundary
        4.constant 5.basis 6.launch
        7.twin 8.companion 9.mankind
        10.speculation 11.swallow 12.inadequate
        13.matter 14.circumstance 15.occur
        16.intense 17.evidence 18.invisible
        19.astronaut 20.tropical
        Ⅱ.Word Form
        1.were reported 2.having 3.made
        4.believed 5.is being pulled 6.swallowing
        7.convincing 8.totally 9.consists
        Ⅲ.Vocabulary and Structure
        1.B 2.D 3.A 4.A 5.C
        6.D 7.B 8.C 9.A 10.D
        Ⅳ.C-E Translation
        1.This process of shrinking is so intense that a black hole results.
        2.It is only recently/It is not until recently that astronomers have begun specific research into black holes.

        UNIT 2-6

        3.But in theory, matter must behave very differently/in a very different manner inside the black hole.
        4.The most convincing evidence of black holes comes from research into binary star systems.
        5.Mankind may one day meet this fate.
        1. 星體的密度增大到一定程度時就會發生爆炸。
        答: The star will explode when its density increases to some extent.
        2. 你能想象黑洞的引力有多大嗎?
        答: Can you imagine how strong the gravitational pull of a black hole is ?
        3. 假如有人掉進黑洞,他會認為很快能到達黑洞的中心。
        答:If a man fell into a black hole, he would think that he reached the center of it very quickly.
        4. 早在17世紀天文學家便對超新星有過報道。
        答: Supernovae were reported by astronomers as early as in the seventeenth century.
        5. 他已盡了全力以達到自己的目標。
        答: He has exerted all his strength to attain his goal.

        UNIT 3-1

        一、word study
        request,ensure,oppose,burden,open up
        ① request n./vt.請求,要求
        request 后面接 for,表示要求的對象;“根據要求”為 by(或 on) request;“應。。。之要求”則 為 at sb’s request。
        He made a request for immediate help.
        他要求立即給予幫助。 Minibuses stop by request. 小公共汽車招手即停。
        Instructions will be sent immediately on(upon) request.
        The singer gave one more song at our request. 歌唱家在我們的要求下又唱了一首歌。 Your silence is requested.
        ② ensure vt.保證,擔保
        ensure 后面接 against 或 from,表示“保證。。。免于。。?!?;后面接 to 或 for,則表示“保證。。。 具有。。?!?。
        We can ensure that the work w ill be done in the right way.
        The police can ensure the witness against (或 from) danger.
        This measure ensure to (或 for) us a voice in the matter.
        ③ oppose vt.1、反對,反抗;2、使相對,使對抗(to)
        Many people opposed building a new highw ay because of the great cost.
        To the difficulties she opposed a will of iron.
        What he said was totally opposed to the facts.
        We are firmly opposed to this dirty political deal.
        ④ burden n.1、擔子,負擔;2、責任,義務
        She bore the w hole burden of raising two children.
        The burden of running the factory is too heavy for his failing health. 管理這家工廠的重擔對他日益惡化的健康來說是太重了。 vt.使負重擔;麻煩,勞累
        The mother w as burden w ith w orries.
        Students are heavily burdened with home assignments.
        ⑤ open up
        1、打開;2、開辦,開辟,開發;3、坦誠地或無拘無束地談話 They opened up his stomach to get at the source of the trouble. 他們給他的胃開了刀,以找出病根。
        They opened up a mine in the remote areas.
        They decided to open up a business in the town.
        The girl decided to open up and tell us everything.

        UNIT 3-2

        1、范萬德爾重病在身,再也不能說清楚話,他知道他沒有康復的希望,身體狀況正在急劇 惡化。P2
        Affected w ith a serious disease, van Wendal was no longer able to speak clearly and he knew there w as no hope of recovery and that his condition was rapidly deteriorating.
        Van Wendel’s last three months of life before being given a final, lethal injection by his doctor w ere filmed and first shown on television last year in the Netherlands.
        3、從那時開始,已有 20 多個國家買下了這個節目,每次播放都引起了對這一話題的全國性大辯論。P3
        The programme has since been bought by  20 countries  and  each time  it  is shown, it  starts a nationw ide debate on the subject.
        What those people who oppose euthanasia are telling me is that dying people haven’t the right.
        .  weaken  .  deteriorate  .debate  .  legal.  request  .  criterion  .  ensure  .  oppose  tradition consideration disabled . burden vulnerable prohibition sensitive
        詞組:. to debate on . to make request for be opposed to . to take … into account
        Affected w ith a serious disease, van Wendal w as no longer able to speak clearly and he knew there w as no hope of recovery and that his condition w as rapidly deteriorating.
        Van Wendel’s last three months of life before being given  a final, lethal  injection by his doctor w ere filmed and first shown on television last year in the Netherlands.
        The programme has since been bought by 20 countries and each time it is show n, it starts a nationw ide debate on the subject.
        What those people w ho oppose euthanasia  are telling me is that dying people haven’t the right.
        The guidelines demand that the patient is experiencing extreme suffering , that there is no
        chance of a cure, and that the patient has made repeated requests for euthanasia .
        I think that anything that legally allow s the shortening of life does make those people more vulnerable.
        3.句子漢譯英 P.59
        Euthanasia can really help rid the dying patients of extreme suffering . Euthanasia does release the dying people from their suffering . 你知道不知道荷蘭是歐洲唯一允許安樂死的國家?
        Do you know that the Netherlands is the only country in Europe that permits euthanasia ?
        Those doctors w ho support the idea never mean they don’t care about / for patients .
        After the first doctor has diagnosed the illness , a second doctor must confirm the case .
        Opponents think patients may not really w ant to end their lives, and probably there is another request behind the request .
        1. The film   ( show ) Cees Van Wendel ’s death w as both moving and sensitive.(99.10)
        答案: showing . 考點:showing  是現在分詞作定語修飾 the film .
        2. Each time the programmer of Van Wendal’s last days before euthanasia w as showed on T V, it starts a nationw ide debate   the subject. (99.10)
        A. for
        B. against
        C. on
        D. of
        答案: C . 考點:詞組 debate on  對…  的爭論。
        3. 漢譯英:每次播放這個節目,都引起對此話題的全國性大辯論。(99.10) 答案: Each time it is shown , this program starts a nationw ide debate on the subject.
        4. 漢譯英 : 據說那個病人曾要求醫生助他一死。(00.10) 答案: The patient is said to have asked the doctor to help him die.
        或者: It is said that the patient has asked the doctor to help him die .)

        UNIT 4-1

        一、word study
        exploit ,campaign,execute,deserve,status,bring over
        ① exploit vt.1、開發,開采;2、利用;3、剝削 A mine is exploited for its minertals. 開發礦山是為了采礦。
        The student exploits every possibility to learn English.
        The company exploited its w orkers w ith long hours and low pay.
        ② campaign n.1、戰役;2、運動,參選運動
        The Huai-Hai Campaign was essential to the victory of the War of    Liberation.
        Our country is launching a campaign against waste.
        His presidential campaign succeeded and he w on the election. 總統競選運動取得成功,他當選了。 vi.參加運動,參加競選活動
        They w ere campaigning to keep the local school open.
        The candidates for president campaigned by sending out letters to voters and speaking at public meeting.
        Joan is campaigning the government for equal rights for women.
        ③ execute vt.1、實行,執行,完成,貫徹;2、將。。。處死 All orders were immediately executed.
        Your order will be executed as early as possible.
        The pianist executed the piece of music perfectly.
        The criminal w as executed after the trial.
        ④ deserve vt.應受,值得(賓語可用名詞,動詞或動詞不定式) He certainly deserves praise.
        Our band deserves ranking w ith the best in this country.
        我們的樂隊在國內當之無愧屬于一流。 He deserves to be sent to prison. 他應該被送去坐牢。
        deserve 變成的形容詞 deserving 后邊用介詞 of。
        The robber is deserving of capital punishment.
        The old man w as really deserving of pity.
        ⑤ status n.1、情形,狀況;2、地位,身份
        We should be alw ays aw are of the status of w orld affairs.
        None will question his status as a scholar.
        We should raise the status of women in society.

        UNIT 4-2

        ⑥ bring over
        Next summer he hopes to bring his family over from the united states.
        My father is alw ays trying to bring me over to his way of thinking.
        1、據估計,有 20000 多海外來的家庭傭人在英國工作。P1
        There are estimated to be more than 20,000 overseas domestic servants working in Britain. There be 表" 存在" 的句型。
        2、在這 20000 人中,將近 2000 人正受著她們的雇主的剝削和虐待。P1
        Of these 20,000, just under 2000  are being exploited and abused by their employers.
        3、在今年早些時候的幾個廣為報道的事例中,全世界女傭的悲慘處境得到新聞媒體的很大 關注。P3
        The  sad  condition  of  women  w orking  as  domestics  around  the  w orld  received  much  media attention earlier this year in several highly publicized cases.
        A Filipino maid w as executed in Singapore after being convicted of murder, despite protests form various quarters that her guilt had not been adequately established.
        5、 她曾在斯里蘭卡一家茶廠掙一份十分微薄的工資。P5
        She used to w ork for a very low wage at a tea factory in Sri Lanka.
        6、因為她發現很難養活自己的 4 個孩子,所以接受了一件在倫敦當傭人的工作。P5
        Because she found it difficult to feed her four children, she accepted a job working as a domestic in London.
        So if they do complain, they risk being deported.
        1.單詞英譯漢 domestic,statistic,diplomat ,exploit ,campaign,execute,convict, despite,deserving,shelf,minimum ,status,deport,
        1) There are estimated to be more than 20,000 overseas domestic servants working in
        2)Of these 20,000 , just under 2,000 are being exploited and abused by their employers.
        3) The sad condition of w omen w orking as domestics around the w orld received much media attention earlier this year in several highly publicized cases.
        4)A Filipino maid w as executed in Singapore after being convicted of murder, despite protests form various quarters that her guilt had not been adequately established.
        5)She used to w ork for a very low wage at a tea factory in Sri Lanka.
        6)Because she found it difficult to feed her four children, she accepted a job working as a domestic in London.
        7)So if they do complain , they risk being deported.
        8)This included increasing the minimum age of employees to 18, getting employees to read and understand an advice leaflet, getting employers to agree to provide adequate maintenance and
        conditions, and to put in writing the main terms and conditions of the job (of which the employees should see a copy).
        9)For the main problem facing overseas maids and domestics who try to complain about
        cruel living and w orking conditions is that they do not have independent immigrant status and so cannot change employer.

        UNIT 4-3

        10)It is, they say, the right to change employers w hich distinguishes employment from slavery.
        The government department that deals with relevant affairs does not keep statistics.
        It w as because she found it difficult to feed her family that she accepted a job w orking as a domestic.
        She w as hired by a Saudi diplomat directly from the Philippines to w ork in London .
        The conditions of w orking as domestics have received media attention .
        The employers alw ays threatened to send us back to our countries.
        1. When they get out of prison, they _ _(increase) the level of their criminal beh avior.
        答案:will increase . 考點:時間狀語從句中主句用將來時,從句用一般現在時表示將來。從 句謂語動詞是 get 一般現在時,所以從句用 will increase 。
        2.At the end of 1994 the British Government introduced new measure to help __domes tic workers from abuse by their employers.
        A. protect B. suspect C. expect D. inspect
        答案是:A . 考點是:protect … from 保護… 免受 …
        3. __ _ _their differences, they fell passionately in love with each other. A. As for B. Owing to C. Despite D. Through
        答案:C . 考點:despite 表示讓步的關系。本句的意思是:盡管他們之間有分歧,但他們彼此 深愛對方。
        1. 許多家庭傭人受到雇主的剝削和虐待。
        答:Many domestic servants are exploited and abused by their employers.
        2. 自去年以來,女傭們的悲慘境況已受到媒體密切關注。
        答:The bad condition of the woman servants has received much media attention since last year.
        3. 他經常威脅我,說要將我遣送回國。
        答: He always threatened that he would send me back to my country.
        4. 她曾在一家茶葉廠工作,工資很低。
        答: She used to work for a very low wage at a tea factory.
        5. 據估計有兩萬多名外國家傭在英國工作。
        答: It is estimated that there are more than 20,000 overseas domestic servants wor king in Britain.

        UNIT 5-1

        一、word study
        transformation,originate,penetrating,take over,take on
        ① transformation n.1、變化,轉化;2、改造,改革
        His brain operation caused a great transformation in his character.
        The transformation of  a backward country  into  an  advanced country  requires  the  painstaking efforts of several generations.
        The social and political transformation of a country is essential to the development of the society.
        ② originate vi./vt.發源;發生,發起
        All theories originate from practice and in turn serve practice.
        所有的理論都來源于實踐,并反過來為實踐服務。 The use of steam originated many other reforms. 蒸汽的使用引起了許多其它的革新。
        ③ penetrating
        a.1、穿透的,貫穿的;2、深刻的,透徹的 They w alked against the penetrating w ind. 他們迎著刺骨的寒風行走。
        Her penetrating voice frightened the little boy.
        Swift’s w orks were most penetrating and pow erful.
        ④ take over
        The young doctor has taken over duties of the old.
        When Mr.Green retired, his son took over the business from him.
        Mr.Brow n took me over to the island in his steamboat.
        ⑤ take on
        The disease took on some special characteristics.
        He has taken on a new job.
        The employer takes on twenty more w orkers.
        那位雇主又雇傭了 20 名工人。
        The new music w as built out of materials already  in existence.
        Folk music, old and modern, w as popular among college students.
        They freely  took over elements from jazz, from American country music.

        UNIT 5-2

        With records at home, listeners imitated these lighting effects as best they could.
        musician  rhythmic  distinct consciousness  originate  readily  instrument  electronic  thereby passive participant
        1.The new music w as built out of materials already in existence.
        2.Folk music, old and modern, w as popular among college students.
        3.They freely took over elements form jazz, from American country music.
        4.With records at home, listeners imitated these lighting effects as best they could.
        5.In a sense, men of this kind begin not so much w ith a musical theme as w ith a completed composition.
        6.Most composers since Beethoven's day belong to this second type.
        7.Men like Palestrina and Bach belong in this category.
        (三)漢譯英 這一章是關于熱能轉化成動力的。
        The chapter is about the transformation of heat into pow er.
        A group of people got together spontaneously at the scene of the    accident.
        The quarrel originated from a misunderstanding.
        1949 年后,軍隊接管了這個城市。
        The army took over this city after 1949.
        For your health,you should avoid taking on too much work.
        1. In the process of composition , it isn’t easy to be inspired in a spontaneous w ay for long periods_ _ a stretch..
        A. at B. for C. over D. in
        答案是 a 。 考點:詞組 at a stretch 一口氣,連續不斷的
        2.漢譯英  新音樂是由業已存在的材料構建出來的。
        答案:The new music was built out of material already in existence.
        3. 漢譯英:那時在大學生中流行的正是民間音樂。
        答案:It was folk music that was popular among college students at that time.
        4. 漢譯英:不用說我們現在已不是生活在傳統社會。
        答案: It goes without saying that we are not living in a traditional society.
        1. 新音樂起源于布魯斯、搖滾樂和民間音樂。
        答: The new music originated from blues, rock and roll and folk music.
        2. 民間音樂表現和平、友誼和希望。
        答: Folk music expresses peace, friendship and hope.
        3. 他們已不再是被動的聽眾而是積極的參與者。
        答: Instead of passive audience, they have become active participants.
        4. 他們自由地從不同的音樂來源中吸取元素。
        答: They freely took over elements form diverse music sources.
        5. 新音樂采取多種形式,幾乎具有無限的表現力。
        答:The new music may take on various forms and be capable of expressing an almost limitless range.

        UNIT 6-1

        一、word study
        ① spray n.1、水花,浪花;2、噴霧,噴霧狀物 The spray of the waterfall is very beautiful. 瀑布的水花飛濺,非常漂亮。
        A spray of bullets hit the tree behind which he w as hiding. 一陣噴射的子彈打中了他藏身其后的那棵樹。 vt.噴,向。。。噴射,噴涂
        Fruit trees are sprayed regularly.
        The students sprayed questions at the teacher.
        ② cast vt.1、投,扔,拋,擲(at);2、投射(光,影,視線等)(on,at);3、澆鑄,鑄造 The boy cast a stone at the dog.
        His w ords cast a new light on the problem.
        他的話題使人們對這個問題有了新的認識。 The robot can cast steel after being reprogrammed. 在重新設定程序之后,機器人能澆鑄鋼材。
        The Beijing Theatre of    People’s Art has a very strong cast.
        ③ expose vt.1、使暴露,使面臨;2、揭露,揭發
        The w orks w ere exposed to all kinds of w eather.
        We should be aw are of the dangers of exposing children to violence on T V.
        He has been widely exposed to the public on the television.
        The mistakes of the past must be exposed w ithout any reserve.
        ④ switch n.1、開關,轉換器;2、(思路、話題等的)轉換
        It is two-way switch.
        He has made a switch of support from one political party to another. 他已從支持一個政黨轉而支持另一個政黨。 vi.1、轉換,改變(思路、話題等);2、接通。。。電流(on),切斷。。。電流(off) We switched the discussion to another topic.
        E ntering the room, he sw itched the light on. 一進房間,他就把燈打開了。 vt.轉換,變換(switch(over)to)
        He switched (over) to medicine and graduated in 1980.
        他改學醫科,于 1980 年畢業。
        ⑤ critical a.1、批評(性)的,批評(性)的;2、對。。。表示譴責,對。。。感到不滿的(of);3、緊 要的,關鍵性的,危急的
        He is a man w ith a critical eye.
        It takes years to develop one’s critical ability.
        The old man w as critical of the boy’s impolite behaviour.
        The patient’s condition is critical.

        UNIT 6-2

        1、目前多數機器人用于汽車工業,它們按編制的程序承擔轎車和卡車車身的焊接和噴漆這 一類的工作。P2
        Most of today's robots are employed in the automotive industry, w here they are programmed to take over such jobs as w elding and spray painting automobile and truck bodies.
        Robots, already  taking over human tasks in the automotive field  are  beginning  to  be  seen, although to a lesser degree, in other industries as w ell.  現在分詞短語作定語
        The robots   used in  nuclear pow er plants  handle  the  radioactive  materials,  preventing human personnel  from being exposed to radiation.
        Robots differ from automatic machines  in that after completion of one specific task, they can be reprogrammed by a computer to do another one.
        Engineers skilled in microelectronics and computer technology are developing artificial vision for robots.
        With the ability to "see", robots can identify and inspect one specific class of objects out of a stack of different kinds of materials. to "see" :不定式作后置定語
        Anyone  wanting to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.
        efficiency increasingly install personnel expose reduction completion specific switch critical intensity scale defective in that in question plenty of
        In recent years, the use of robots is becoming increasingly w ider and deeper. Robots are used more and more w idely and deeply in recent years.
        Robots have been increasingly used w ider and deeper in recent years.
        The newly-developed  robots have a sense of touch, are able to see objects, and can make decision as w ell.
        Robots are employed w idely in the automotive industry. The use of robots in the automotive industry is prevalent.
        Light–sensitive materials and digital cameras are all photographic equipment.
        There is a significant difference betw een robots and automatic machines. There are major differences betw een robots and automatic machines.
        1. Most today’s robots are employed in the automotive industry, __ _they are prog rammed to take over such jobs as welding and spray painting . (99.4)
        A. as B. which C. when D. where
        答案:D. 考點:where 引導的非限定定語從句,修飾 automotive industry。
        2. Robots differ from automatic machines in _ after completion of one specific ta sk, they can
        be reprogrammed to be another one. (00.4)
        A. which B. that C. how D. whether
        答案:B. 考點:in that 復合連詞引導原因狀語從句,表示“在于”。

        UNIT 6-3

        3. Robots , already taking over human tasks in the automotive field, are beginning___ (see) in other
        industries as well. (00.4) (01.10)
        答案:to be seen 考點:begin to do sth. 所以用動詞不定式,而且用被動式。
        4. Anyone__ __(want) to understand the industry of the future will have to know ab out robotics. (00.10)(01.4)
        答案: wanting 考點:動詞現在分詞作定語修飾 anyone。
        5.The nations that_ _actively_ _ (involve) in earthquake prediction programs inc lude Japan, China, Russia, and the United States.
        答案:are involved 考點: 詞組:be involved in sth.
        6. 漢譯英:機器人將要在哪些領域替代人的工作呢?(00.10) 答案: In what field will robots take over human tasks?
        7. It is not yet known _ computers will one day have vision as good as human visi on .
        A. whether B. if C. that D. how
        答案:A . 考點: whether 引導的主語從句。
        8. Robots, __ __(become) increasingly prevalent in factories and industrial plants throughout the developed
        world, are programmed and engineered to perform industrial tasks without human inte rvention.
        答案:becoming 考點:現在分詞作狀語。
        9 . Robots , becoming__ _(increase) prevalent in factories , are programmed and en gineered
        答案: increasingly
        10. 漢譯英:今年來,計算機在各個領域的應用越來越廣泛。
        答案:In recent years, the computer is finding wider and wider application in all f ields.

        UNIT 7-1

        一、word study
        ① attach vt.1、固定住,系;2、附加,隸屬;3、把(重點)放在;4、使喜愛,使依戀 You have to attach a label to a box w hile posting it. 郵寄箱子時需在箱子上貼上標簽。
        They provide aid w ith no conditions attached.
        We should attach primary importance to a firm and correct political orientation.
        He was strongly attached to his home.
        ② underlie vt.支撐;構成(理論,政策,行為等)的基礎 Careful planning underlies all my decisions. 我的全部決定是以周密計劃為根據的。
        What underlies his lack of interest in work?
        There w ere deeper tensions underlying last w eek’s strike.
        ③ relevant a.1、貼切的,中肯的;2、與。。。有關的(to)
        This is a relevant question.
        This point is not really relevant and we had better move on.
        We should make our lives relevant to the needs of the country.
        All evidence relevant to the case should be gathered and analyzed.
        ④ positive a.1、明確的,確實的;2、積極的,肯定的;3、正的,陽性的
        He gave positive instructions.
        I w onder if he can provide positive proof.
        L ight is a positive thing; darkness is only the absence of light.
        光是確實存在的東西,而黑暗只是沒有光。 Who can give a positive answer? 誰能給一個肯定的答復?
        He alw ays has some positive ideas on company policy.
        The test is positive which show s a particular disease is present.
        People in advanced industrial societies  are increasingly concerned with opportunities for leisure.
        The importance people  attach to paid holidays  and the rapid  development of services for mass entertainment and recreation are signs of this increasing concern.
        The specific use of leisure varies from individual to individual.

        UNIT 7-2

        4、由于休閑基本上是自己決定的事,個人就可以培養自己的興趣和愛好,并以能為自己帶 來享受和滿足的方式參與某項活動。P6
        Since leisure is basically self-determined, one is able to take to one’s interests and preferences and get involved in an activity in w ays that will bring enjoyment and satisfaction.
        Basically, such attitudes amount to a recognition that leisure is an important area of life and of a belief that leisure can and should be put to good use.
        For example,  the degree to which and the ways in  which a school encourages participation  in games, sports and cultural pursuits are likely to contribute to the shaping of leisure attitudes on the part of the students.
        Schools usually set as their educational objective the attainment of a balanced development of the person.
        The more seriously this is sought,  the more likely positive attitudes  towards leisure as w ell as academic w ork will be encouraged.
        1.research   2.attach    3.underlie    4.relevant  5.positive
        6.possession    7.desirable  8.relaxation  9.occupation  10.urban
        11.acquire    12.participation
        be concerned with  be relevant to    to set … as objective
        The term"quality of life" covers a very w ide scope.
        In a fast-paced stressful society, it is good for health to set aside some time to relax oneself. It's good for one's health to find time to relax in a society of fast-paced and stressful work.
        People 's interests and hobbies are related to social contexts and their learning experiences. People's interests and preferences are all related to social contexts and individual learning
        The positive attitude towards leisure is the foundation to encourage people's creative use of their spare time.
        A positive leisure attitude is the foundation for motivating people to use their leisure in a creative way .
        The findings of research and observation indicate that people are more and more concerned w ith the quality of life.
        Observations and researches indicate that people are increasingly concerned w ith the quality of life.
        1. A good schedule must have a little give so that special projects can__ _(take) care of properly. (99.4)
        答案:be taken 。 考點: 情態動詞的被動語態。
        2. Since leisure is basically self-determined, one should get involved _ an activ ity in ways that will bring enjoyment and satisfaction . (99.4)
        A. in B. of C. towards D. with
        答案: A . 考點:詞組 get /be involved in 參與… ;卷入…

        UNIT 7-3

        3. The importance of these _ (vary ) according to the nature of one’s job and on e’s lifestyle. (99.10)
        答案:varies 考點:一般現在時單數第三人稱形式。
        4. This will not only keep the study habit alive but also _ __(keep ) you up to da te on your class assignments and projects. 答案
        答案:keep 。 考點:not only 與 but also 后的詞的形式應一致。
        5. The specific use of leisure_ _ from individual to individual. (00.4) A. ranges B. distinguishes C. varies D. covers
        答案 :C。分析:此題考查不及物動詞 vary 的用法。搭配為:vary … from … to 各不相同。
        6. The more time you waste, the_ _(easy) it is to continue wasting time.(00.4) 答案:easier 。 考點:the more … the more 句型,表示“越… 越…”。
        7. Such attitudes amount to a belief__ leisure can and should be put to good use. (01.4)
        A. which B. if C. whether D. that
        答案:that 。 考點:that 引導同位語從句修飾 belief 。
        8. This will not only keep the study habit alive but also keep you up to__  on you r class assignments and projects. (01.4)
        A. day B. date C. number D. time
        答案:B。 考點: 詞組 up to date 最新的,keep you up to date 表示跟得上….
        9 . 漢譯英:人們越來越關注休閑的機會。(99.4)
        答案: People are increasingly concerned with opportunities for leisure.
        10. 漢譯英:眾所周知,即使同樣的休閑活動,不同的人使用的方式也不同。(00.4)
        答案: It is well known that even the same leisure activity may be used different b y different individuals.
        1. 在工業化國家人們越來越關心休閑的機會。
        答:People in the industrialized countries are increasingly concerned with opportun ities for leisure.
        2. 為什么他們對帶薪休假那么重視呢?
        答: Why do they attach so much importance to paid holidays?
        3. 對休閑的具體利用是因人而異的。
        答: The specific use of leisure varies from individual to individual.
        4. 我們所接觸的人可能對我們休閑態度產生某種影響。
        答: The people with whom we come into contact may exert some influence on our atti tudes toward leisure.
        5. 學校教育的目的之一是使學生得到均衡發展。
        答: One of the educational objectives of school is to attain a balanced developmen t of students.

        UNIT 8-1

        一、word study
        ① proceeding n.1、程序,進程;2、【p l】項目,活動,會議文集
        That is by no means the best way of proceeding.
        He opened today’s proceedings in several short sentences.
        He brought divorce proceedings against his w ife.
        The proceedings w ere published 6 months after the conference.
        ② alarm n.1、警報;2、驚恐
        The alarm system w ent wrong and created a false alarm.
        報警系統失靈,引起一場虛驚。 He didn ’t take alarm at the new s. 他聽到消息后并不吃驚。 vt.1、向。。。報警,使警覺;2、使。。。驚恐,打擾
        I w as quite alarmed last night at the cry of “fire”.
        昨晚有人大呼救火,使我大吃一驚。 Heavy trucks alarmed one all night. 載重汽車聲整夜使人不得安寧。
        ③ promote vt.1、促進,發揚;2、提升,升級;3、發起,創辦
        He was promoted to director.
        It is believed that taking a w alk after meals promote digestion.
        The salesman promotes the sales of remote-control TV sets and VCRs.
        那個推銷員推銷遙控電視機和錄像機。 The pianist promoted a grand benefit concert. 那個鋼琴家籌辦了一次盛大的義演音樂會。
        The problem of Jet Lag is  one every international traveler comes across at some time.
        The effects of rapid travel on the body are actually  far more disturbing than w e realize.
        He later  blamed his poor judgment  on Jet Lag.
        Now that w e understand w hat Jet Lag is, w e can go some way to overcoming it.
        5、另一個定時系統在我們的體內時鐘內,這些體內時鐘在不受干擾時,會使人體有一個 25
        小時,是的,25 小時---的生理節奏。P6
        The other belongs in our internal clocks which, left alone, w ould tie the body to a 25 hour – yes,25 – rhythm.
        In time, the physiological system w ill reset itself, but it does take time.
        One reason for this discrepancy is that different bodily events are controlled by different factors.
        8、不可能等上 4 天直到身體習慣新的時區。P10
        It is not feasible to w ait four days until the body is used to the new time zone.

        UNIT 8-2

        1.effect on
        2.to blame… on
        3.to advantage
        4.now that
        5.out of step
        6.to leave … alone
        1.~ 8. 與重點句型相同。
        9.But  the  growth  hormone  is  released  during  sleep,  w henever  in  the  day  that  sleep occurs.(para.9)
        10.Protein in meals stimulates w akefulness, w hile carbohydrates promote sleep.(para.13)
        It is not difficult to understand the disturbing effects of rapid travel on the body.
        It is not difficult to realize that the disturbing effects on the body are caused by rapid travel.
        One reason for this discrepancy is that different bodily events are controlled by different factors.
        Protein in food stimulates wakefulness, w hile carbohydrates promote sleep.
        The problem of Jet Lag is one every international traveler comes across.
        It is not feasible to wait a few days until the body's regulatory mechanisms are used to the new time zone.
        1.In practical application, concentration is not__ _the definition may imply. (99.4)
        A. as simple to deal successfully with as
        B. so simple to deal successfully with that
        C. simpler to deal successfully with as that
        D. as same simple to deal successfully with as
        答案:A。 考點:本題主要考查 as … as 搭配表示“和…. 一樣”。而選項 D 中 as 的后面還 有一個詞 same 。 因為 same 表示的意思也是同樣,與…同樣的意思與 as … as 意義重復,因 此不選 D。
        2. Understand what Jet Lag is , and how a careful diet can minimize its worst effec ts,__ .(99.10)
        A. your flight will be less stressful
        B. and your flights will be less stressful
        C. or your flights will be less stressful
        D. in order that your flights will be less stressful
        答案:B。 分析:本句是一個 and 連接的并列句。因此只有 B 符合題意。
        3. Coffee delays the body clock in the morning, and advances__ at night. (00.4) A. it B. them C. the coffee D. the body
        答案:A。 分析:本句是個并列句,and 連接的兩個句子結構應一致。因此,advances 后面的 賓語應是 the body,而為了避免重復,因此用代詞 it 代替。
        答案:The effects of rapid travel on the human body are much greater than we realiz e.
        5. The other timing system belongs in our internal clocks, which , left _, would t ie the body to a 25-hour rhythm. (03.4)
        A. behind B. alone C. out D. aside
        答案: B . 考點: 本題主要考查詞組:leave alone 不管,不理,把…放在一邊。
        1. 快速旅行對人體的影響比我們意識到的要大得多。
        答: The effects of rapid travel on the body are much greater than we realize
        2. 他后來把自己的錯誤判斷歸咎于時差反應。
        答:He later blamed his poor judgement on Jet Lag.
        3. 食物中的蛋白質使人興奮,而碳水化合物使人易于入睡。
        答: Protein in meals stimulates wakefulness while carbohydrates promote sleep.
        4. 在外語學習中沒有捷徑可走。
        答: There is no short cut in the study of a foreign language.
        5. 為了克服時差反應我們能做些什么呢?
        答: What can we do in order to overcome Jet Lag?

        UNIT 9-1

        一、word study
        ① approximate a.近似的,大約的
        The approximate number of immigrants is two million.
        The approximate length of a meter is 40 inches.
        一米大約為 40 英寸。
        vt.1、近似,接近;2、使接近(在直接賓語后用介詞 to)
        Your account of w hat happened approximates the real facts, but there are some small inaccuracies.
        We try to approximate the operating temperature to the optimal value. 我們努力使工作溫度接近最佳值。 vi.接近(其詞義與及物動詞相同,只是后面接介詞 to)
        Your account of w hat happened approximates to the real facts.
        ② proportion n.比率,比例
        in proportion to  表示“與。。。成比例”; out of proportion  表示“與。。。不成比例”
        The proportion of births to the population is increasing.
        A large proportion of the earth surface is ocean.
        The camel possesses strength in proportion to its size.
        His earnings are out of all proportion to his skill and ability. 他的收入與他的技術及能力很不相稱。 vt.使成比例;使相稱
        The soldier proportioned his pace to the march.
        ③ appreciation n.1、欣賞,鑒賞;2、正確評價;3、感激,感謝
        A person with an appreciation of art and literature is qualified for the job.
        一個具有文學藝術欣賞力的人能勝任這項工作。 Rabbits have a well-know n appreciation for family life. 眾所周知,兔子有重視家庭生活的習性。
        We take this opportunity of expressing our sincere appreciation of your help.
        They are mistaken in their appreciation of the country’s economic conditions.
        ④ acknowledge vt.1、承認;2、表示謝意
        He acknowledged his ow n faults.
        The sales department acknowledged my order form.
        The minister acknowledged his adviser ’s services to the city.
        ⑤ neglect vt./n.忽視,忽略;疏忽 They neglected his w arning .
        The secretary w as fired for neglecting her duty.

        UNIT 9-2

        Agriculture is somewhat neglected in that district.
        The old man lives alone in neglect.
        1、如果一個國家人口中 7%或以上的人滿 65 歲或超過 65 歲,就被列為“老齡國”。P1
        Nation classified as "aged" w hen they have 7 percent of more of their people aged 65 or above.
        2、一個社會的人口增長率越接近零,它的人口就可能越老齡---至少對任何能關系到我們現 在的未來是這樣的。P1
        The nearer a society approximates to zero population growth,  the older its population is likely to be—at least, for any future that concerns us now.
        The older you are now, of course, the greater this proportion w ill be, and greater still if you are a w oman.
        4、如果你現在 30 多歲,你應當知道你可以指望活到 60 歲后再活上剩余生命的三分之一。P5
        If you are now in your thirties, you ought to be aw are that you can expect to live nearly one third of the rest of your life after the age of 60.
        1.classify  2.approximate  3.proportion  4.appreciation  5.acknowledge
        6.alter  7.lengthen  8.wealthy  9.neglect  10.expectation
        1.to approximate to 2.resistance to 3.to cope with 4.attribute … to
        1.~4. 與??季湫拖嗤?。
        5.If, however, children grow up without love and without feelings of self-worth, they feel unlovable and worthless and expect to be cheated, taken advantage of, and looked down upon by others.
        look down upon : 看不起…; 輕視… ;
        6.without a healthy self-esteem they may cope by acting out problems rather than talking them out or by withdrawing and remaining indifferent toward themselves and others.
        7.It is not until energies are back to normal that the real problem is recognized.
        8.it is not until about the time the child enters school that outside forces contribute to feelings about the self.
        Aging has become a social problem.
        The resistance to the idea is caused by the falling of birthrates. The fall of birthrate resulted in people's objection to the idea.
        The length of life depends on various factors. Expectation of life is due to various factors.
        Expectation of life is the average numbers of years that a person is expected to live.
        The expectancy of life is the prediction of average years a person can live.
        Long life is altering our life as well as our society. Long life is changing our lives, changing our society.

        UNIT 9-3

        1.Your account of what happened yesterday approximates   the real facts.(99.10)
        A. near
        B. of
        C. to
        D. upon
        答案:C??键c:此題考查詞組 approximate to 表示“與…接近”。
        It is because the birthrate fell that our society had grown so old.
        3.Nations are   as "aged" when they have 7 percent or more of their people aged 65 or above.
        A. limited
        B. classified
        C. originated D. processed (00.4)
        答案:B。本題考查詞組:classify as 表示把… 列為。
        The nearer a society approximates to zero population growth, the older its population is.
        5.If you are now   , you ought to pay more attention to your health. (01.4)
        A. in the fifties B. in your fifties C. in fifties
        D. in your fifty
        答案:B. 本題主要考查詞組 in your fifties 表示"在你 50 歲時"。
        6.We know that we are getting even older, and that the nearer a society approximates to zero population
        Growth, the   (old) its population is likely to be. (01.10) 答案:older。本題主要考查“the + 形容詞比較級…. the +形容詞比較級”的用法。
        7.In his composition there were no other errors   a few misspelled words. (02.4)
        A. beside
        B. except
        C. then
        D. than
        答案:D。本題主要考查詞組"no other … than "的用法,表示“除了…外,沒有… ”。
        8.We  would  like  to  take  this  opportunity  to  express  our  sincere
        (appreciate) of your help. (02.4)
        答案:appreciation 。本題中 sincere 是形容詞,因此后面接名詞。Appreciate 是 動詞,其名詞形式是 appreciation .

        UNIT 10-1

        一、word study
        ① decline vi.1、下傾,下降;2、衰退,衰弱;3、謝絕,拒絕
        The production of natural gas declined slightly.
        天然氣的生產略有下降。 His strength slow ly declined. 他的體力慢慢地衰弱了。
        A blind man smilingly declined to be helped across the street.
        He respectfully decline the invitation. 他有禮貌地謝絕了邀請。 n.1、下傾,下降;2、衰退,衰弱
        The customs figures show a steady decline in British trade.
        We are studying the decline and fall of ancient Rome.
        ② impact n.1、沖擊,碰撞;2、效果,影響
        The storm of the w orld revolution has powerful impact on imperialism.
        The book Ten That Shook the World  made a great impact on its readers.
        The ground had been impacted by many people walking across it.
        ③ stir vt.1、攪拌,攪動;2、激起,打動
        You should stir the sugar in your coffee with a spoon.
        We all deeply stirred by the beauties of nature. 我們都被大自然的美深深地打動了。 vi.微動,活動
        I read Hemingw ay’s The Sun Also Rises  through to the end w ithout stirring from the table.
        The invention is going to cause a big stir in the w orld.
        ④ provision
        n.1、供應,供應品;2、條款,規定;3、【常 p l】給養,口糧
        Provision of shelter w as the Red Cross’s main concern for the disaster victims.
        為災民提供避難處是紅十字會的主要工作。 Necessary provision has been made against flood. 已為防洪做了必要準備。
        You should save up money to make provision for the future.
        You can do so under the provisions of a new foreign aid bill.
        根據新的援外法案的條文,你可以這樣做。 Provisions are kept in the storehouse. 儲備的口糧存放在倉庫里。

        UNIT 10-2

        Candidates try to project a strong leadership image.
        Whether  voters  accept  this  image,  how ever,  depends   more  on  external  factors   than  on  a candidate’s personal characteristics.    此句注意主語從句作主語。
        3、一年以后,隨著國家經濟陷入困境,布什的支持率則下降到 40%以下。P4
        A year later, w ith the  nation ’s economy in  trouble,  Bush’s approval  rating  dropped below  40 percent.
        Candidates are particularly concerned with winning the states which have the largest population.
        5、在 1992 年,,克林頓僅獲得民眾選票的 43%,相比之下,布什是 38%,佩羅是 19%。P6
        Clinton received only 43 percent of the popular vote in 1992, compared with Bush's 38 percent and Perot's 19 percent.
        1.election  2.vote  3.certainty  4.loyalty  5.decline
        6.democrat  7.strategy  8.pursue  9.impact  10.headquarters
        11.economy  12.stir  13.congress  14.representative to identify…as impact on
        1.~ 5. 與重點句型相同。
        6.In deciding whether to pursue a course of action, they try to estimate its likely impact on the voters.
        7.Warren G. Harding accepted the 1920 Republican nomination at his Ohio home, stayed there throughout most of the campaign, and won a full victory simply because most of the voters of his time were Republicans.
        8.“The Economy, Stupid.”The slogan was the idea of James Carville, Clinton's chief strategist, and was meant as a reminder to the candidate and the staff to keep the campaign focused on the nation's slow-moving economy, which ultimately was the issue that defeated Bush.
        The presidential election takes place every four years in the United States.
        A majority party nominee usually has the advantage of support over a minority party one.
        A major-party nominee always gets higher approval rating than a minor-party nominee.
        Strategies play a critical role in the election. Strategy is critical in the presidential election.
        To win the presidency, a candidate is particularly concerned with winning the states which are important.
        In order to get the votes, presidential candidates are concerned with those important states.
        There are about a dozen political parties in America, only two of which are major parties.

        UNIT 10-3

        1.Victory in the eleven   (large) states alone would provide an electoral majority. (99.10)
        答案:largest。此題主要考查 large 的最高級。
        2.Even Democrat George McGovern,   had the lowest level of party support among recent
        Nominees, was backed in 1972 by nearly 60 percent of his party's voters. (99.10)
        A.who B.whose C.that D.which
        答案:A. who 引導的非限定性定語從句。
        3.漢譯英:這與其說取決于候選人的個人特點不如說取決于外部因素。(00.4) 答案:This depends on external factors rather than on a candidate's personal
        4.In 1991, after the Gulf War, Bush's approval rating reached 91 percent, the highest level recorded since polling   (begin) in the 1930s. (00.10)
        答案:began。此題考查過去時,因為有一個明顯的過去時間狀語“in the 1930s”。
        5.Americans have learned much about the way in which the system can be managed so as to   the peaceful transfer of power from one party to the other. (01.4)
        A.make it possible B.make possible C.make possibly D.make it possibly
        答案:B.本題中 make 的賓語太長,所以放到了賓補 possible 的后面?!癿ake …possible” 表示“使…成為可能”。
        6.In deciding   a course of action, the candidate tried to estimate its
        likely impact on the voters. (02.4) A.what to pursue
        B.which to pursue
        C.whether to pursue
        D.if to pursue
        答案:C.分析:所要填的空是 deciding 的賓語。而 pursue 后面的賓語是 a course of action。 選項 A “what to pursue”, what 是賓語。選項 B 中,which 也是作主語或賓 語。選項 D. 語法結構不對,因此選 C.
        7.A major-party nominee has the critical advantage in the campaign for the presidential election   he has the support from the party faithful. ( 03 ,
        10 )
        A.in that B.in which C.for which D.for that
        答案:A “在于”(復合連詞表示原因)
        Trans lation
        1.  眾所周知,美國總統選舉每四年一次。
        答: It  is  well  known  that pres idential  elections occur in  the United States  every 4 years .
        2.  克林頓那時始終把競選的注意力集中在國家緩慢發展的經濟上。
        答: At that time  Clinton always  kept  the campaign focused on the nation’s s low-developing economy.
        3.  候選人都想盡力表現出一種強有力的領袖形象。
        答: Candidate  try  to project a  strong leaders hip image.
        4.  選民們是否接受這一形象更取決于外在因素。 答案
        答:Whether voters  accept this  image  depends more  on external factors .
        5.  候選人特別關注如何在人口最多那些州獲勝。
        答: Candidates are particularly concerned with how to win the states which have th e largest population .

        UNIT 11-1

        一、word study
        ① replace vt.1、把。。。放回(原處),使恢復(原職);2、更換,以。。。替代 The airline is currently replacing its DC10s w ith DC Super 80s.
        這家航空公司正在用 DC 超 80 飛機取代 DC10 飛機。
        Please replace the new spaper after reading.
        ② litter n.1、(供動物睡眠或植物防凍的)干草;2、雜亂無章;3、(貓狗等)一窩(仔畜);4、【總 稱】亂丟的東西(尤指廢紙等雜物) vt.1、為(動物)鋪草;2、(多產動物)產(仔);3、亂丟
        The boxes are filled w ith litter for the small animals to live in.
        The children picked up all the litter on the playground.
        孩子們把亂扔在操場上的廢紙等雜物都拾了起來。 I w as surprised to see his room in such a litter. 我看到他的房間如此亂七八糟感到驚訝。
        Please don’t litter.
        Please don’t litter the room.
        Please don’t litter w aste papers round the room..
        ③ refine vt.1、提純,精制;2、使精美,使完善
        They have built a factory to refine cane sugar.
        他們建了一個提煉蔗糖的工廠。 He has refined his manners. 他已使自己的舉止儀態變得高雅完美。
        Reporters tried to refine their questions to draw their expected response.
        ④ reproduce vt.1、繁殖;2、再生產,再生長(器官);3、復制;4、再現,重現 There are animals which can reproduce a lost part of their bodies. 有些動物能使身體上失去的某部分再生。
        Frogs reproduce themselves by laying eggs.
        A tape-recorder w ill reproduce your lecture.
        He reproduced the painting by photography.
        The conditions that existed ten years ago are reproduced today.
        The use of animals has been central to the development of anaesthetics.
        Animal research  is irrelevant to our health and it can often produce misleading results.
        People and animals are different in their reactions to drugs and in the way their bodies work.
        It  would be completely  irresponsible  and unethical to use drugs on people that  had not been
        thoroughly tested on animals.

        UNIT 11-2

        The eventual aim of computer modeling is to reduce the number of animals used in experiments.
        6、現在已有很多別的新技術,使更多的研究能在試管里進行,以便發現化學藥品是否產生 有害的生物效果。P7
        Many other new techniques are now available that enable more research to be done in the test tube to see if chemicals produce harmful biological effects.
        7、用于實驗室實驗的動物數量在過去 20 年中已經減少。P8
        The number of animals used in laboratory tests has declined over the last 20 years.
        8、這部分地是由于采用替代的方法,部分地是由于實驗比以前設計的更好,所以需要的動 物就少了。P8
        This is partly due to alternatives  and partly  to the fact that experiments  are better designed so fewer need to be used.
        Professor David Morton of the department is involved in animal research and is concerned with reducing animal suffering as much as possible.
        This includes keeping them in more suitable cages. include  后面接動名詞作賓語。
        In the US,one experiment in nerve regeneration involves  cutting a big nerve in a rat’s leg .
        12、例如當研究心臟病和它對身體的影響時,或者當研究大腦疾病時,我們沒有充分的代用 品來代替動物。P12
        When it comes to research into heart disease and its effects on the body, we do not have adequate substitutes for the use of animals. When it comes to  當提到…的時候
        Animal research has made great contributions to human medical development. Animal research has contributed a great deal to the development of human medicine.
        People have different ideas about whether animal research is relevant to human health.
        3 用于實驗的動物數量在過去二十年中已大大減少了。
        The number of animals used in experiments has declined greatly over the past 20 years.
        4.The new research findings show that a few experiments can be done w ithout using animals. The new development in research has show n that a small proportion of tests can be donew ithout using animals.
        Although  medical  techniques  are becoming  more advanced,  stopping testing  on  animals altogether is a long w ay aw ay.
        Although medical technique becomes more and more advanced, stopping testing on animals altogether is a long w ay aw ay.
        1. The number of animals used in laboratory tests __(decline) over the last 20 yea rs. (99.10)
        答案: has declined 。 考點:本句中 over the last 20 years 是明顯的表示現在完成時的 時間狀語。因此本句用現在完成時。
        2. To assume the care for the pets can help bring  the__ humanity in our children and even in us adults. (99.10)
        A. about B. in C. out D. up 答案
        答案: C ??键c: 本題主要考查詞組 bring out 表示“使顯示,顯現;生產,使產生”

        UNIT 11-3

        3. It is touching to see how a cat or dog – especially a dog – itself to family a nd wants to share in all its goings and comings. (00.4)
        A. attributes B. applies C. assigned D. attaches
        答案: D ??键c:本題主要考查詞組 attach … to 表示“把 … 附加到,使 … 與 … 相關”。
        4. As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals_ _(use) in e xperiments many decrease. (00.10)
        答案: used ??键c:本題主要考查 used 過去分詞 做定語修飾 animals 。
        5. Some people think that animal research is irrelevant_ _our health and that it c an often produce misleading results. (01.4)
        A. with B. at C. on D. to
        答案: D 。本題主要考查詞組 be irrelevant to 表示“與 … 不相關”。
        6. 漢譯英:他的膚色與他是否是個好教授沒有關系。
        答案:The color of his skin is irrelevant to whether he is a good professor or not
        7. As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals used in exper iments may decrease, but stopping__ _(test) on animals altogether is a long way aw ay.
        答案: testing 。本題主要考查詞組 stop doing sth. 停止做某事。 Translation
        1. 有人認為用動物進行實驗根本沒有必要。
        答: There are those who think the test on animals are simply unnecessary.
        2. 人和動物對藥物的反應并不相同。
        答: People and animals are different in their reactions to drugs.
        3. 新技術使我們容易找到代替動物實驗的方法。
        答: New technology makes it easy for us to find alternative methods of testing on animals.
        4. 正是狗教會我們忠誠和奉獻,而貓卻對此一無所知。
        答: It is the dog who can teach us lessons of loyalty and devotion that no cat eve r knows.
        5. 照料小貓們有助于培養孩子的人情味。
        答: Caring for cats can help bring out the humanity in children.

        UNIT 12-1

        一、word study
        ① spur n.1、踢馬刺;2、刺激(物),鼓勵;鼓舞
        This book is a spur to the child ’s intellect and imagination. 這本書激發了那個孩子的智力和想象力。 vt.1、用踢馬刺催促(馬);2、激勵,鞭策
        He spurred his horse and ran aw ay.
        The thought of the prize spurred me on.
        ② confront vt.1、面對,遭遇;2、正視;對抗
        Escape being impossible, the rabbit turned to confront the dog.
        逃跑是不可能的,兔子就轉過頭來和狗對抗。 The disease confronted him with death. 疾病使他面臨死亡。
        The difficulties that confront us cannot be overcome. 我們所面臨的困難無法克服。 如果用被動時態,則 confronted 后用 w ith 或 by。
        We are confronted by many difficulties.
        The explorers were confronted with many challenges.
        ③ reflection n.1、反射,反映,映像;2、沉思,考慮 The reflection of light confused us. 反光使我們頭暈眼花。
        The reflection of the sun w as blinding.
        This poem is a reflection of my mood at the time I w rote it.
        He was looking at his reflection in the mirror.
        After some reflection the manager granted the request.
        ④ drift n.1、漂流;2、傾向,趨勢
        The w eather forecast reported an easterly drift of w ind.
        The general drift of affairs was towards war.
        We watched the leaves drift down the stream.
        Our conversation drifted from one topic to another.
        In order to find a job, he drift from California to Toronto. 為找到一份工作,他從加利福尼亞漂泊到多倫多。 vt.使漂流
        The snow w as drifted in great piles against the house.

        UNIT 12-2

        At its best, daydreaming w as considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life.
        There are alw ays those w ho would substitute fantasy lives for the rewards of real activity.
        Most people suffer from a lack of daydreaming rather than an excess of it.
        4、不僅他們應付每日生活的壓力的能力變差,他們的自我控制和自我導向能力也會受到損 害。P2
        Not  only  are  they  less able  to deal  w ith  the  pressure of  day-to-day  existence,  but  also  their self–control and self-direction become endangered.
        But its beneficial effects go beyond this .  Go beyond  表示" 超越…, 不僅僅是…"
        Historically , scientists and inventors are one group that seems to take full advantage of relaxed moments.  Take advantage of 利用
        7、無論何時他遇到好像一個解決不了的問題時,他會躺在實驗室沙發上,四肢舒展,讓各 種幻覺涌滿他的腦海。P7
        Whenever  confronted with a task w hich seemed  too hard  to be dealt with, he would stretch out on his laboratory sofa and let fantasies flood his mind.
        Picture yourself as winning and that w ill contribute remarkably to success.
        The important thing  to remember is  to picture these desired objectives  as if you  had already attained them.
        1. symptom 2. intellectual 3. detail 4. initial
        5. inventor 6. confront 7. sensitivity 8. reflection
        9. creativity 10. character 11. trace 12. modest
        13. investment 14. to substitute … for 15. be contrary to 16. to put off
        17. be confronted with 18. to gaze at
        19. be unaware of 20. to impress…on
        21. be free from 22. be beneficial to
        1.~9.  與??季湫拖嗤?。 三、漢譯英
        Recent research shows / indicates that daydreaming is part of daily life .
        Daydreaming is not only beneficial to the mental balance, but also to enhance one's ability of self-control.
        Daydreaming  can  not  only  help  maintain  emotional  balance  ,  but  also  improve  one's self-control .
        Historically, many scientists and inventors have taken full advantage of daydreaming. Many scientists and inventors in history took full use of daydreaming.
        While composing, some composers seem to approach a state of deep daydreaming.
        Some  composers  seemed  to  approach  a  state  of  deep  daydreaming  while  they  w ere composing.
        Picture yourself as a w inner rather than loser in your daydream. Picture yourself in your daydream as w inning rather than defeated.

        UNIT 12-3

        1. According to Dr. Kramer,_ __people who appear in your dreams, _ you are on aw akening. ( 99.10 )
        A  as many … as happy B  the more… the more happy C  the more… the happi er D  the most … the happiest
        答案: C ??键c:本題主要考查 the + 比較級, the + 比較級,結構是“越 … , 越 … ”
        2. Hold a picture of yourself long and steadily enough__ your mind's eye, and you will be drawn toward it . (99.10)
        A. at B. in C. before D. in front of
        答案: B ??键c:本題主要考查詞組 in one's mind's eye 意思是“在腦海中”。
        3. In the past two decades, research__ _(expand) our knowledge about sleep and dre ams. (00.4)
        答案: expanded 。本題主要考查現在完成時?!?in the past two decades ”經常是表示現 在完成時的時間狀語。
        4. It has been proved that their best ideas seem_ _(occur) when they were relaxing. (01.4)
        答案: to have occurred 。 考點:本題主要考查 seem 后面要加動詞不定式完成式作賓語。
        5. 漢譯英:科學家正在研究為什么白日夢會有益于人們的健康。 (01.4)
        答案: Scientists are studying why daydreaming is beneficial to people's health.
        6. A life_ _(live) without fantasy and daydreaming is a really poor life indeed.( 02.4 )
        答案: lived ??键c: lived 是過去分詞作定語修飾 life 。 詞組“ live a …life ”表示 過著 … 樣的生活。
        daydream vi./n. 白日做夢     s ymptom n. 癥狀,征兆
        Most infections are  contagious before any s ymptoms  are  noticed.
        He  recognizes  the symptoms ,  but refus es  to admit  that he  has marital  problems .

        UNIT 13-1

        一、word study
        compel,undertake,coincide,gamble,go in for
        ① compel    vt.強迫(compel…to 或 compel…to sth)
        They w ere often compelled to w ork twelve or fourteen hours a day.
        他們常常不得不每天工作 12 或 14 小時。
        He alw ays tried to compel me to his w ill .
        The performance compelled tears from the audience.(=…compel the audience to shed tears)
        ② undertake vt.1、著手做,進行;2、承擔,從事,進行;3、承擔,答應(to)
        The police undertook detailed and comprehensive investigations into the case.
        警察對這個案件著手進行了細致和全面的調查。 We undertook to reach home before dark. 我們爭取天黑以前到家。
        Do you know the law yer who undertook the case?
        你認識負責處理此案的律師嗎? Reluctantly he undertook the task. 他勉勉強強地接受了這一使命。
        He undertook to preserve a strictly neutral position.
        ③ coincide vi.一致,相符(w ith)
        The centres of the two circles coincide.
        They cannot go to the theatre together because his free time never coincide w ith hers.
        The judges didn ’t coincide in opinion.
        ④ gamble vi./vt.1、賭博,打賭(on);2、投機,冒險
        They gambled on the result of a competition.
        The young man has gambled everything away.
        I w ouldn’t gamble on Jim‘s paying the bill if I were you.
        He gambled his savings to start a small shop. 他孤注一擲用自己的積蓄開了一家小商店。 n.1、賭博;2、投機,冒險
        The operation may not succeed; it ’s a gamble w hether the patient lives or dies.
        ⑤ go in for
        I’m going to go in for the final examination next w eek.
        As my intellect is not adapted for science, I must go in for art.
        我的頭腦不適應科學,我應該學藝術。 What sports do you go in for? 你喜歡哪些體育項目?
        In our department, every student goes in for after-school activities.

        UNIT 13-3

        1. The important of these _ (vary) according to the nature of one's life-style. (99.10)
        答案: varies 。
        2. 漢譯英:他被迫接受了一份他自己毫無興趣的工作。 答案: He is compelled to take a job.
        3. A man can not be really happy if what he enjoys__ (do) is ignored by society as of no value or importance. ( 00.10 )
        答案: doing ??键c: enjoy 后跟名詞或動名詞作賓語。 Translation
        1. 一個人如果被社會強迫去做他不樂意的事情,他就不可能真正快樂。
        答: A man cannot be really happy if he is compelled by society to do what he does not enjoy doing.
        2. 工作與勞動的區別不在于腦力勞動與體力勞動的區別。
        答: The difference between work and labor does not lie in the difference between m ental and manual jobs.
        3. 他說老板給他的工作他毫無興趣。
        答: He says the job his boos offers him is of no interest to him.
        4. 一個人是工作者還是勞動者可以從他對休閑的態度上看出來。 答案
         答: Whether one is a worker or laborer can be seen form his attitude toward leisur e.
        5. 對他來說,休閑意味著沒有強制。
        答: To him , leisure means freedom from compulsion.

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